About biofuel


Biofuel is fuel produced from biomass such as plants or organic waste. Biofuels are generally categorized into different types based on the production technology and the raw material origin; 1st generation (1G), 2nd generation (2G) and 3rd generation (3G). The 1st generation technology is well established while the 2nd generation technology is still under development. The 2nd generation technology is focusing on the use of raw materials that are not used for food production as well as increasing the yield of produced biofuel. Generally the production of 2nd generation biofuels is more expensive than 1st generation biofuels, mainly due to the need of various pretreatment steps of the raw materials used. The third generation production technology uses microalgae as raw material for 1st generation or 2nd generation production process. In this investigation 1st generation and 2nd generation biofuels will be considered. Biofuels can further be classified as gas or liquid fuels. (Mannvit, p.4)¹

Among gas fuels can be mentioned methane (1G) and hydrogen, syngas and DME (2G). Common types of liquid fuels are; ethanol (1G, 2G), butanol, methanol (2G), FA glycerides, conventional biodiesel (FAME/FAEE) (1G) and HDRD, BTL diesel and BTL petrol (2G). In this report (project) following biofuels will be considered; Fuels from anaerobic fermentation (Bioethanol, Biohydrogen and Biomethane), Fuels from fatty acid glycerides (Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME/FAEE) and Hydrogenation derived renewable diesel (HDRD)) and Fuels from biosyngas (FT-fuels, Bioethanol, Biohydrogen, Biomethanol, BioDME and Biomethane). (Mannvit, p.4)¹



   

The biomass used for possible production of biofuels will in this study be divided into following main categories (Mannvit, p.22)¹ ;

  • Biomass obtained by cultivation
  • Organic waste from agriculture
  • Organic waste from household, industry and services
  • Sewage
  • Emissions of biogas from landfill sites

Following types of biofuels produced from raw materials in Iceland will be discussed (Mannvit, p.22)¹ ;

  • Fuels from anaerobic fermentation (Bioethanol, Biohydrogen and Biomethane)
  • Fuels from fatty acid glycerides (Fatty acid alkyl esters (FAME, HDRD) and Hydrogenation derived renewable diesel (HDRD)
  • Fuels from biosyngas (FT-fuels, Bioethanol, Biohydrogen, Biomethanol, BioDME and Biomethane).

1. Mannvit, Biofuel production in Iceland

Wikipedia - Biofuel